The Rutgers Scholar
An Electronic Bulletin of Undergraduate Research

Comparison of initial and final endings in
Sino-Korean, Mandarin, and Cantonese

">Hana Kang* and Richard VanNess Simmons1
1Department of Asian Languages and Cultures,
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08901

*Rutgers Undergraduate Research Fellow

Keywords: Sino-Korean, Mandarin, Cantonese, Chinese, historical phonology

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* The article by H. Kang and R. V. Simmons includes Korean, Chinese, and other special characters. It will display fully and correctly only on relatively recent releases of Netscape (4.7 or higher) and of Internet Explorer (5.5 or higher), and then only if the "Arial Unicode" font has been installed. The ArialUnicode font (arialuni.ttf) is normally provided with setup disks for Microsoft Office 2000 and Windows 2000, but can also be downloaded from
Once the font has been downloaded, its installation under Windows follows the standard sequence, i.e., from the "start" button, choose: settings > control panel > fonts.

Then, on the fonts menu bar, choose: file> install new font.

Internet Explorer (5.5 or higher)

(1) On the upper menu bar, choose Tools > Internet Options > General >Fonts > and then select Arial Unicode MS first for "Latin based," then for "Korean," and then for "Chinese."

(2) On the upper menu bar, choose View > Encoding > Unicode (UTF-8)

Netscape (4.7 and higher)

(1) On the upper menu bar, choose Edit > Preferences > Appearance > Fonts> "For the Encoding" > Unicode and then select "Arial Unicode MS" for both the "Variable Width Font" and the "Fixed Width Font"

(2) On the upper menu bar, choose View > Character Set > Unicode (UTF-8)

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